Longitudinal changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes, amyloid uptakes from positron emission tomography (PET), structural outcomes from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cognition, have not been compared between Blacks and Whites.
A total of 179 Blacks and 1180 Whites who were cognitively normal at baseline and had longitudinal data from at least one biomarker modality were analyzed for the annual rates of change.
CSF amyloid beta (Aβ)42/Aβ40 declined more slowly (P = .0390), and amyloid (PET) accumulated more slowly (P = .0157), in Blacks than Whites. CSF Aβ42 changed in opposite directions over time between Blacks and Whites (P = .0039). The annual increase in CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau181 for Blacks was about half of that for Whites.
Longitudinal racial differences in amyloid biomarkers are observed. It will be important to comprehensively and prospectively examine the effects of apolipoprotein E genotype and sociocultural factors on these differences.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Drs. Xiong, Schindler, Fagan, Benzinger, Hassenstab, Balls-Berry, Moulder, and Morris all have received research funding from the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health that was made to their institutions. Dr. Hassenstab also received a BrightFocus grant that was made to his institution. Dr. Morris received royalties or licenses for CDR registration, and received support for attending meetings and/or travel (Srinivasan 40th Oration, India; World Congress of Neurology; Cure Alzheimer's Board meeting; CBR Intl' Advisory Board). Dr. Xiong consults for Diadem. There are no conflicts. Dr. Schindler consults for National Institute on Aging Alzheimer Disease Center Clinical (ADC) Task Force, to me National Centralized Repository for Alzheimer Disease. Dr. Fagan has received research funding from the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health, Biogen, Centene, Fujirebio, and Roche Diagnostics. She is a member of the scientific advisory boards for Roche Diagnostics, Genentech, and AbbVie and also consults for Diadem, DiamiR, and Otsuka Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Fagan also consults for Seimens Healthcare Diagnostics. There are no conflicts. Dr. Benzinger consults for Biogen. There are no conflicts. Dr. Hassenstab consults for Lundbeck, Eisai, Roch, and Parabon Labs. There are no conflicts. Dr. Morris consults for Barcelona Betabrain Research Center, BBRC SAB meeting, Barcelona Centre for Brain Research meeting, Bangalore, India. There are no conflicts. Dr. Schindler received payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers’ bureaus, manuscript writing, or educational events from University of Wisconsin and St. Luke's Hospital. There are no conflicts. Dr. Benzinger received payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers’ bureaus, manuscript writing, or educational events from Biogen. There are no conflicts. Dr. Hassenstab received payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers’ bureaus, manuscript writing, or educational events: (seminar speaker) from Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute (ATRI), University of Southern California. There are no conflicts. Dr. Balls-Berry received payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers’ bureaus, manuscript writing, or educational events: (Keynote lecture) from University of Kansas Medical Center Diversity Black History Month Research Day Kansas City, Kansas; (Keynote lecture) from INSciTS: International Network for the Science of Team Science: Building the Knowledge Base for Effective Team Science; and (Norman R. Seay Lecture) from The Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (Knight ADRC), Washington University School of Medicine, Missouri 2018). There are no conflicts. Dr. Morris received payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers’ bureaus, manuscript writing, or educational events: (Grand Rounds lecture) from Montefiore, NY. There are no conflicts. Drs. Xiong, Luo, Benzinger, Hassenstab, and Balls-Berry all served on a data safety monitoring board or advisory board for FDA or NIH-funded studies. There are no conflicts. Dr. Schindler is a member of the Board of Directors, Alzheimer's Association Greater Missouri Chapter. Dr. Balls-Berry is president of the Board of Directors for Health Literacy Media. Dr. Morris is a member of Cure Alzheimer's Board. Avid Radiopharmacueticals and Life Molecular Imaging have provided reagents and technology transfer agreements to Dr. Benzinger's institution for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. Dr. Grant and Ms. Agboola have nothing to disclose.
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